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OPC UA

- OPC UA Local Discovery is a service provided by OPC Foundation which lists all the OPC UA's on a Machine. It listen to Port 4840
- OPC UA Security has several message security modes:
     - 1: No Security. The messages are neighther signed or encrypted
     - 2: With Security. The messages are signed or but not encrypted
     - 3: With Security. The messages are signed and encrypted
    
     So what does this mean?
     - The OPC UA specification allows all these type of communication. Yes, including 'no security'!
     - However, an OPC UA Server will  determine which one is allowed.
     - When a client is connecting to an OPC Server, he has the option to request what level of security he wants to connect to.
     - If 'No security' is used, this means:
         - There is no encryiption
         - NO SSL CERTIFICATE IS NEEDED. The client does not need to show a cert
         - The Server will accept all clients (Will not verify the SSL Cert)
- When an SSL Cert is required, OPC UA requres that such a cert is validated.
     - A Thumbprint is a unique id that is calculated by hashing via SHA-1 the contents of the cert. It has 40 characters
     - Validation is based on Subject Name which should be in the form of 'DC=ComputerName,CN=ProgramName". DC is distinguished name, CN is Common Name
- A client will need to scan the OPC UA Server and determin which security policy it implements. OPC UA Security Policies
     http://opcfoundation.org/UA/SecurityPolicy#None
     http://opcfoundation.org/UA/SecurityPolicy#Basic128Rsa15 (Obsolete)
     http://opcfoundation.org/UA/SecurityPolicy#Basic256 (Obsolete)
     http://opcfoundation.org/UA/SecurityPolicy#Basic256Sha256 [B]
     http://opcfoundation.org/UA/SecurityPolicy#Aes128_Sha256_RsaOaep [A]
- OPC UA Also allows authentication, typically authenticated againt windows username and password.
- In OPCUA Tree, each item is called a NODE. A Node can be of the following types; these are NODE TYPES (OR Sometimes refer to as Node CLASS)
     - Object = 1,
         - AN OBJECT IS BRANCH (YOU CANNOT SUBSCRIBE TO IT)
     - Variable = 2,
         - A VARIABLE CAN BE SUBSCRIBED TO. IT CAN ALSO BE A BRANCH
     - Method = 4,
         - A METhOD CAN BE CALLED
     - ObjectType = 8,
     - VariableType = 16,
     - ReferenceType = 32,
     - DataType = 64,
     - View = 128,
- Each Node regardless of whatever types, will have attributes. The following attributes must exist in all node types:
     - NodeId - Uniquely identifies a Node in an OPC UA server and is used to address the Node in the OPC UA Services
         - in OPCUA the NodeId, is rather confusing, like OPC Classic, the NodeId is a string, However, in OPC UA, it first
         - Starts with a NameSpace Index
             - A value between 0-65535 (Ushort)
             - Normally Namespace is zero (meaning no namespace)
         - The actual ID, which can be of 4 types:
             - Numeric = 0 (Unsigned Integer UINT, ranging from 0 to 4Billion)
             - String = 1
             - Guid = 2 (A specific guid)
             - Opaque = 3 (An Array of bytes)
         - Fully Qualified Name
             - Since this naming can be complicated, it is common to use a combined name which will look like the following:
                 - ns=<namespaceIndex>;<identifiertype>=<identifier>
                 - Identifier type can be:
                     - i    NUMERIC (UInteger)
                     - s    STRING (String)
                     - g    GUID (Guid)
                     - b    OPAQUE (ByteString)
             - Specfying the Fully Qualified Name seems to be the common practice for OPCUA Connectivity
                 -
     - NodeClass    - An enumeration identifying the NodeClass of a Node such as Object, Variable or Method
     - BrowseName - Identifies the Node when browsing the OPC UA server. It is not localized
     - DisplayName -    ontains the Name of the Node that should be used to display the name in a user interface.
- Nodes may have some additional attributes
     - The Variable Node Type must have in addition the the values
         - Value    - The actual value of the Variable. The data type of the value is specified by the DataType, ValueRank, and ArrayDimensions Attributes
         - DataType - DataTypes are represented as Nodes in the Address Space. This Attribute contains a NodeId of such a Node and thus defines the DataType of the Value Attribute
         - ValueRank    - Identifies if the value is an array and when it is an array it allows specifying the dimensions of the array
         - AccessLevel
             - A bit mask indicating whether the current value of the Value Attribute is readable and writable as well as whether the history of the value is readable and changeable
             - Readable = 1,
             - Readable | Writable = 3
         - UserAccessLevel - Contains the same information as the AccessLevel but takes user access rights into account       
     - The Attributes have attribute IDs
         - 1 = NodeId
         - 2 = NodeClass
         - 3 = BrowseName (A non-localized, human readable name for the node)
         - 4 = DisplayName (A localized, human readable name for the node)
         - 5 = Description (A localized description for the node)
         - 6 = WriteMask (Indicates which attributes are writeable)
         - 7 = UserWriteMask (Indicates which attributes are writeable by the current user)
         - 8 = IsAbstact (Indicates that a type node may not be instantiated)
         - 9 = Symmetric (Indicates that forward and inverse references have the same meaning)
         - 10= InverseName (The browse name for an inverse reference)
         - 11= ContainsNoLoops (Indicates that following forward references within a view will not cause a loop)
         - 12= EventNotifier (Indicates that the node can be used to subscribe to events)
         - 13= Value (The value of a variable) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- MOST IMPORTANT!!!!!!
         - 14= DataType (The node id of the data type for the variable value)
         - 15= ValueRank (The number of dimensions in the value)
         - 16= ArrayDimensions (The length for each dimension of an array value)
         - 17= AccessLevel (How a variable may be accessed)
         - 18= UserAccessLevel (How a variable may be accessed after taking the user's access rights into account)
         - 19= MinimumSamplingInterval (Specifies (in milliseconds) how fast the server can reasonably sample the value for changes)
         - 20= Historizing (Specifies whether the server is actively collecting historical data for the variable)
         - 21= Executable (Whether the method can be called)
         - 22= UserExecutable
         - 23= DataTypeDefinition (Provides the metadata and encoding information for custom DataTypes)
         - 24= Permissions (The permissions available for the node)
         - 25= UserPermissions (The subset of permissions available for the current user)
         - 26= RolePermissions (The permissions granted to roles)

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